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    Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy (GLC-EM), a cutting-edge liquid-phase EM technique, has become a powerful tool to directly visualize wet biological samples and the microstructural dynamics of nanomaterials in liquids. GLC uses graphene sheets with a one carbon atom thickness as a viewing window and a liquid container. As a result, GLC facilitates atomic-scale observation while sustaining intact liquids inside an ultra-high-vacuum transmission electron microscopy chamber. Using GLC-EM, diverse scientific results have been recently reported in the material, colloidal, environmental, and life science fields. Here, the developments of GLC fabrications, such as first-generation veil-type cells, second-generation well-type cells, and third-generation liquid-flowing cells, are summarized. Moreover, recent GLC-EM studies on colloidal nanoparticles, battery electrodes, mineralization, and wet biological samples are also highlighted. Finally, the considerations and future opportunities associated with GLC-EM are discussed to offer broad understanding and insight on atomic-resolution imaging in liquid-state dynamics.


    Jungjae Park, Kunmo Koo, Namgyu Noh, Joon Ha Chang, Jun Young Cheong, Kyun Seong Dae, Ji Su Park, Sanghyeon Ji, Il-Doo Kim, Jong Min Yuk. Graphene Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy: Progress, Applications, and Perspectives. ACS nano. 2021 Jan 26;15(1):288-308

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    PMID: 33395264

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