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Name: Amikacin
PubChem Compound ID: 2142
Description: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Molecular formula: C22H43N5O13
Molecular weight: 585.603 g/mol
Amikacin; NSC177001; ANTIBIOTIC BB-K8; BB-K8; Novamin; Briclin
Name: Amikacin
Name (isomeric): DB00479
Drug Type: small molecule
Description: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Amikacin Base; Amikacinum [INN-Latin]; Amikacin Sulfate; Amikacine [INN-French]; Amikacina [INN-Spanish]; ANTIBIOTIC BB-K8; BB-K8; Amikacin Dihydrate
Brand: Amikavet, Amicacin, Amiglyde-V, Briclin, Amikin
Category: Anti-Bacterial Agents, Aminoglycosides
CAS number: 37517-28-5
Indication: For short-term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, species of indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus, Providencia species, Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia species, and Acinetobacter (Mima-Herellea) species. Amikacin may also be used to treat Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.
Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and ...
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Mechanism of Action:
Aminoglycosides like Amikacin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Amikacin inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit to prevent the formation of an initiation complex with messenger RNA. Specifically Amikacin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This in...
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Absorption: Rapidly absorbed after intramuscular administration. Rapid absorption occurs from the peritoneum and pleura. Poor oral and topical absorption. Poorly absorbed from bladder irrigations and intrathecal administration.
Protein binding: 0-11%
Route of elimination: Amikacin is excreted primarily by glomerular filtration.
Half Life: 2-3 hours
Clearance: 100 mL/min
Toxicity: Mild and reversible nephrotoxicity may be observed in 5 - 25% of patients. Amikacin accumulates in proximal renal tubular cells. Tubular cell regeneration occurs despite continued drug exposure. Toxicity usually occurs several days following initiation of therapy. May cause irreversible ototoxicity. Otoxocity appears to be correlated to cumulative lifetime exposure. Drug accumulation in the endolymph and perilymph of the inner ear causes irreversible damage to hair cells of the cochlea or summit of ampullar cristae in the vestibular complex. High frequency hearing is lost first with progression leading to loss of low frequency hearing. Further toxicity may lead to retrograde degeneration of the 8th cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve. Vestibular toxicity may cause vertigo, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and loss of balance.
Affected organisms: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Drug interaction:
CefalotinIncreased risk of nephrotoxicity
PancuroniumThe agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
RocuroniumThe agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
SuccinylcholineThe agent increases the effect of muscle relaxant
FurosemideIncreased ototoxicity
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