Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions
Bookmark Forward

QuickView for Caffeine (compound)


PubChem
Name: Caffeine
PubChem Compound ID: 2519
Description: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Molecular formula: C8H10N4O2
Molecular weight: 194.191 g/mol
Synonyms:
component of Midol; Coffein; Guaranine; Organex; Miudol; P-A-C Analgesic Tablets; AIDS-001649; component of A.S.A. and Codeine Compound; Quick-Pep; SDCCGMLS-0064595.P002.
show more »
DrugBank
Identification
Name: Caffeine
Name (isomeric): DB00201
Drug Type: small molecule
Description: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Synonyms:
Monomethyl Derivative of Theophylline; Caffeine, Synthetic; CFF; Methyltheobromide; Compound 65; Methyltheobromine; Cafeina; Theophylline ME; Theobromine ME; Caffeine Pure.
show more »
Brand: Ercatab, Coffeine, Darvon Compound-65, Keep Alert, Nodoz Maximum Strength Caplets, Theine, Pep-Back, Dexitac, Guaranine, Miudol, Eldiatric C, Coffein, Organex, Anoquan, Caffine, SK 65 Compound, Dexitac Stay Alert Stimulant, No-Doz, Hycomine, Migergot, Norgesic, Femcet, Propoxyphene Compound-65, Alert-Pep, Wake-Up, Quick Pep, Invagesic, Esgic-Plus, Dhc Plus, Propoxyphene Compound 65, Maximum Strength Snapback Stimulant Powders, Durvitan, Mateina, Synalgos-Dc, Cafcit, Esgic, Darvon Compound, Invagesic Forte, Cafipel, Nodaca, Phensal, Orphengesic Forte, Wigraine, Caffedrine Caplets, Koffein, Dasin, Enerjets, Thein, Nix Nap, Diurex, Triad, Cafamil, Fioricet, Kofein, Norgesic Forte, Vivarin, Refresh'n, Medigesic Plus, Orphengesic, Fiorinal, Stim, Lanorinal, Natural Caffeinum, Caffedrine, Ultra Pep-Back, Cafecon
Brand name mixture:
ASA, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine Phosphate(Acetylsalicylic Acid + Caffeine + Codeine Phosphate), Madelon(Acetylsalicylic Acid + Caffeine), Anacin Caplet(Acetylsalicylic Acid + Caffeine), Trianal Tablet(Acetylsalicylic Acid + Butalbital + Caffeine), 217 Strong Tab(Acetylsalicylic Acid + Caffeine Citrate), Trianal-C 1/2 Capsule(Acetylsalicylic Acid + B...
show more »
Category: Anorexigenic Agents, Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Central Nervous System Stimulants
CAS number: 58-08-2
Pharmacology
Indication: For management of fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, and for the short term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants.
Pharmacology:
Caffeine, a naturally occurring xanthine derivative like theobromine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity). Often combined with analgesics or with ergot alkaloids, caffeine is used to treat migraine and other headache types. Over the counter,...
show more »
Mechanism of Action:
Caffeine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that...
show more »
Absorption: Readily absorbed after oral or parenteral administration. The peak plasma level for caffeine range from 6-10mg/L and the mean time to reach peak concentration ranged from 30 minutes to 2 hours.
Protein binding: Low (25 to 36%).
Biotransformation: Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) is involved in caffeine biotransformation. About 80% of a dose of caffeine is metabolized to paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), 10% to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and 4% to theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine).
Route of elimination: In young infants, the elimination of caffeine is much slower than that in adults due to immature hepatic and/or renal function.
Half Life: 3 to 7 hours in adults, 65 to 130 hours in neonates
Toxicity: LD50=127 mg/kg (orally in mice)
Affected organisms: Humans and other mammals
Interactions
Drug interaction:
LithiumCaffeine decreases serum levels of lithium
AdenosineCaffeine may diminish the therapeutic effect of adenosine. Specific management recommendations vary slightly depending on specific adenosine product used (i.e., therapeutic vs. diagnostic use of adenosine). Significantly higher adenosine doses, or alternative agents, may be required. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of adenosine if the patient is already receiving caffeine. Discontinue caffeine in advance (5 half-lives, or approximately 24 hours, is specifically recommended) of scheduled diagnostic use of adenosine (e.g., for radionuclide imaging studies) whenever possible.
ClozapineCaffeine increases the effect and toxicity of clozapine
CiprofloxacinCiprofloxacin may increase the effect and toxicity of caffeine.
TerbinafineTerbinafine may increase the plasma concentration of Caffeine.
show more »

Targets


Enzymes


Transporters