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Name: Kanamycin
PubChem Compound ID: 32943
Description: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Molecular formula: C18H38N4O15S
Molecular weight: 582.578 g/mol
Kanaqua; Kanamycin sulfate; Kanamycin monosulfate; Kanamytrex; Kanescin; Kanicin; Otokalixin; Prestwick_596; Kano; Kantrex.
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Name: Kanamycin
Name (isomeric): DB01172
Drug Type: small molecule
Description: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Nebramycin Factor 5; Aminodeoxykanamycin; KAN; Kanamycin Base; Kanamycin Sulfate
Brand: Klebcil, Kenamycin A, Bekanamycin, Kanamycin A, Kanamycin B
Category: Protein Synthesis Inhibitors, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Aminoglycosides
CAS number: 8063-07-8
Indication: For treatment of infections where one or more of the following are the known or suspected pathogens: <i>E. coli</i>, <i>Proteus</i> species (both indole-positive and indole-negative), <i>E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens,</i> and <i>Acinetobacter</i> species.
Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and...
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Mechanism of Action:
Aminoglycosides like kanamycin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Specifically Kanamycin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base in the ant...
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Absorption: Kanamycin is rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection and peak serum levels are generally reached within approximately one hour. Poor oral and topical absorption except with severe skin damage.
Half Life: 2.5 hours
Toxicity: Mild and reversible nephrotoxicity may be observed in 5 - 25% of patients. Amikacin accumulates in proximal renal tubular cells. Tubular cell regeneration occurs despite continued drug exposure. Toxicity usually occurs several days following initiation of therapy. May cause irreversible ototoxicity. Otoxocity appears to be correlated to cumulative lifetime exposure. Drug accumulation in the endolymph and perilymph of the inner ear causes irreversible damage to hair cells of the cochlea or summit of ampullar cristae in the vestibular complex. High frequency hearing is lost first with progression leading to loss of low frequency hearing. Further toxicity may lead to retrograde degeneration of the 8th cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve. Vestibular toxicity may cause vertigo, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and loss of balance. Oral LD50 is 17500 mg/kg in mice, over 4 g/kg in rats, and over 3 g/kg in rabbits.
Affected organisms: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Drug interaction:
CefoxitinIncreased risk of nephrotoxicity
CefotetanIncreased risk of nephrotoxicity
FurosemideIncreased ototoxicity
Ethacrynic acidIncreased ototoxicity
ColistimethateAminoglycosides may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Colistimethate. Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Colistimethate. Due to the potential for additive or synergistic toxicities (including both nephrotoxicity and neuromuscular blockade) between colistimethate and the aminoglycoside antibiotics, this combination should be avoided whenever possible. If these agents must be used together, patients' renal and neuromuscular function should be monitored closely.
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