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Recent studies of hereditary renal tubular disorders have facilitated the identification and roles of chloride channels and cotransporters in the regulation of the most abundant anion, Cl-, in the ECF. Thus, mutations that result in a loss of function of the voltage-gated chloride channel, CLC-5, are associated with Dent's disease, which is characterized by low-molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, and renal failure. Mutations of another voltage-gated chloride channel, CLC-Kb, are associated with a form of Bartter's syndrome, whereas other forms of Bartter's syndrome are caused by mutations in the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) and the potassium channel, ROMK. Finally, mutations of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCCT) are associated with Gitelman's syndrome. These studies have helped to elucidate some of the renal tubular mechanisms regulating mineral homeostasis and the role of chloride channels.


R V Thakker. Chloride channels in renal disease. Advances in nephrology from the Necker Hospital. 1999;29:289-98

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PMID: 10561751

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