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    All nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes to different extents, which accounts for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and their gastrointestinal side effects. We have exploited biochemical differences between the two COX enzymes to identify a strategy for converting carboxylate-containing NSAIDs into selective COX-2 inhibitors. Derivatization of the carboxylate moiety in moderately selective COX-1 inhibitors, such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) and arylacetic and fenamic acid NSAIDs, exemplified by indomethacin and meclofenamic acid, respectively, generated potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors. In the indomethacin series, esters and primary and secondary amides are superior to tertiary amides as selective inhibitors. Only the amide derivatives of ETYA and meclofenamic acid inhibit COX-2; the esters are either inactive or nonselective. Inhibition kinetics reveal that indomethacin amides behave as slow, tight-binding inhibitors of COX-2 and that selectivity is a function of the time-dependent step. Site-directed mutagenesis of murine COX-2 indicates that the molecular basis for selectivity differs from the parent NSAIDs and from diarylheterocycles. Selectivity arises from novel interactions at the opening and at the apex of the substrate-binding site. Lead compounds in the present study are potent inhibitors of COX-2 activity in cultured inflammatory cells. Furthermore, indomethacin amides are orally active, nonulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory agents in an in vivo model of acute inflammation. Expansion of this approach can be envisioned for the modification of all carboxylic acid-containing NSAIDs into selective COX-2 inhibitors.


    A S Kalgutkar, B C Crews, S W Rowlinson, A B Marnett, K R Kozak, R P Remmel, L J Marnett. Biochemically based design of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors: facile conversion of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs to potent and highly selective COX-2 inhibitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2000 Jan 18;97(2):925-30

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    PMID: 10639181

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