Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • angiotensin (1)
  • CYP3A4 (6)
  • cyp3a4 protein, human (1)
  • human (2)
  • indoles (1)
  • liver (2)
  • mass (2)
  • P 450 (2)
  • P450 (1)
  • perindopril (1)
  • phase (1)
  • protein human (1)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    4-Chloro-N-(2-methyl-1-indolinyl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide (indapamide), an indoline-containing diuretic drug, has recently been evaluated in a large Phase III clinical trial (ADVANCE) with a fixed-dose combination of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, perindopril, and shown to significantly reduce the risks of major vascular toxicities in people with type 2 diabetes. The original metabolic studies of indapamide reported that the indoline functional group was aromatized to indole through a dehydrogenation pathway by cytochromes P450. However, the enzymatic efficiency of indapamide dehydrogenation was not elucidated. A consequence of indoline aromatization is that the product indoles might have dramatically different therapeutic potencies. Thus, studies that characterize dehydrogenation of the functional indoline of indapamide were needed. Here we identified several indapamide metabolic pathways in vitro with human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP3A4 that include the dehydrogenation of indapamide to its corresponding indole form, and also hydroxylation and epoxidation metabolites, as characterized by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Indapamide dehydrogenation efficiency (V(max)/K(m)=204 min/mM) by CYP3A4 was approximately 10-fold greater than that of indoline dehydrogenation. In silico molecular docking of indapamide into two CYP3A4 crystal structures, to evaluate the active site parameters that control dehydrogenation, produced conflicting results about the interactions of Arg212 with indapamide in the active site. These conflicting theories were addressed by functional studies with a CYP3A4R212A mutant enzyme, which showed that Arg212 does not seem to facilitate positioning of indapamide for dehydrogenation. However, the metabolites of indapamide were precisely consistent with in silico predictions of binding orientations using three diverse computer methods to predict drug metabolism pathways.


    Hao Sun, Chad Moore, Patrick M Dansette, Santosh Kumar, James R Halpert, Garold S Yost. Dehydrogenation of the indoline-containing drug 4-chloro-N-(2-methyl-1-indolinyl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide (indapamide) by CYP3A4: correlation with in silico predictions. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009 Mar;37(3):672-84

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 19074530

    View Full Text