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The L-cone/M-cone visual pigment gene arrays were analyzed in a group of 63 Japanese females consisting of 7 applicants for examination of their carrier status, 14 color-deficient females, 6 obligate carriers with no genotypic data available for affected father or sons, and 36 color-normals. The first and the downstream genes, the entire region from the promoter to exon 6, were each amplified very efficiently by the long-range PCR to give products of 15.8 and 14.4 kb, respectively. The products were gel-purified and used as the template in the second PCR for exon 5. The region from intron 4 of the last genes, to the nearest neighbor gene, TEX28, was also efficiently amplified by the long-range PCR and the gel-purified products (27.5 kb) were used as the template in the second PCR for exon 5. The status of the 7 applicants was thought to be 3 non-carriers, 2 protan carriers and 2 deutan carriers. All of the 14 color-deficient females had unusual arrays in which an M gene was present as the first gene, an L gene(s) was present downstream, or a single L gene constituted both of the two arrays. One protanopic subject, A348, had an L gene as one of the first genes. The 6 obligate carriers also had unusual arrays with the exception of the mother of the A187, a male subject with pigment color defect. In the 36 color-normal individuals, 4 had downstream L genes. The long-range PCR method is useful for analysis of the L/M visual pigment genes.


Sanae Oda, Hisao Ueyama, Yasuhiro Nishida, Shoko Tanabe, Shinichi Yamade. Analysis of L-cone/M-cone visual pigment gene arrays in females by long-range PCR. Vision research. 2003 Mar;43(5):489-95

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PMID: 12594995

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