Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Accumulating data support the idea that apoptosis in cardiac myocytes, in part, contributes to the development of heart failure. Since a number of neurohormonal factors are activated in this state, these factors may be involved in the positive and negative regulation of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. Norepinephrine is one such factor and induces apoptosis in cardiac myocytes via a beta-adrenergic receptor pathway. beta-adrenergic agonist-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes is dependent on the activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway. Interestingly, the activation of this pathway protects PC12 cells from apoptosis, suggesting that cAMP/protein kinase A regulates apoptosis in a cell type-specific manner. Another neurohormonal factor activated in heart failure is endothelin-1, which acts as a potent survival factor against myocardial cell apoptosis. Intracellular signaling pathways for endothelin-1-mediated protection include activation of MEK-1 /ERK1/2 and PI3 kinase. In addition to these protective pathways common among cell types, endothelin- activates the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, which is necessary for the nuclear import of NFAT transcription factors. These factors interact with the cardiac-restricted zinc finger protein GATA-4 and induce transcription and expression of anti-apoptotic molecule bcl-2. Thus, myocardial cell apoptosis is regulated by pathways unique to cardiac myocytes as well as by those common among cell types. It should be further determined whether agents that specifically block myocardial cell apoptosis will attenuate the progression of heart failure.


Eri Iwai-Kanai, Koji Hasegawa. Intracellular signaling pathways for norepinephrine- and endothelin-1-mediated regulation of myocardial cell apoptosis. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2004 Apr;259(1-2):163-8

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 15124920

View Full Text