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Ixolaris is a two-Kunitz TFPI (tissue factor pathway inhibitor) from the tick salivary gland. In contrast with human TFPI, Ixolaris binds tightly to the zymogen FX (Factor X) and to dansyl-Glu-Gly-Arg-chloromethyl ketone-treated FXa (DEGR-FXa; active-site-blocked FXa), indicating that exosites are involved in the FX(a)-Ixolaris interaction. Here we provide evidence that Ixolaris binds specifically to the FXa HBE (heparin-binding exosite), since (i) it markedly decreases the inhibition of FXa by the antithrombin-heparin but not the antithrombin-pentasaccharide complex, (ii) it impairs FXa binding to Sepharose-immobilized heparin, and (iii) it allosterically modulates the catalytic activity of FXa for small chromogenic substrates (S-2765). By using a series of recombinant FXa mutants in which the HBE is mutated, we have identified the importance of amino acids involved in the enzyme-inhibitor interaction as being in the following order: Arg-93>>Arg-165> or =Lys-169>Lys-236>Lys-96>Arg-240>Arg-125. Ixolaris at appropriate concentrations also inhibits thrombin formation in vitro by the assembled prothrombinase complex, a process that is critically dependent on the FXa HBE. Ixolaris is the first inhibitor characterized to date that binds specifically to the FXa HBE.


Robson Q Monteiro, Alireza R Rezaie, José M C Ribeiro, Ivo M B Francischetti. Ixolaris: a factor Xa heparin-binding exosite inhibitor. The Biochemical journal. 2005 May 1;387(Pt 3):871-7

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PMID: 15617517

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