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Tetracycline derivatives affect many cellular functions relevant to chronic cardiovascular pathologies, including cell proliferation, migration and matrix remodelling. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether they may modulate the pathologic characteristics known to be significantly involved in human aortic valve stenosis, such as gelatinase production, apoptosis, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The effects of tetracycline derivatives (tetracycline and CMTs-3, -5, -8) on MMP-2 and -9 and their endogenous tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1 and -2) production profiles in explanted human aortic valve pieces were examined by means of gelatine zymography and reverse zymography. Chemiluminescent ELISA was performed to assess VEGF and TNF-alpha concentrations in the medium, and in order to evaluate programmed cell death, in situ labelling of the 3'-ends of the DNA fragments generated by apoptosis-associated endonucleases was performed. CMT-3 and -8 lowered the MMP-9 and VEGF levels significantly in a drug-, dose-, and time-dependent manner. MMP-2 and TIMPs remained unchanged, emphasizing the specificity of CMTs to MMP-9 production on the one hand and restoring the beneficial equilibrium of MMP-9 and TIMPs on the other. Tetracycline was the only drug with a significant impact on net gelatinolytic activity, suggesting that the effect of tetracycline is more extensive concerning total MMP activity. Tetracycline derivatives may have therapeutic effects on the pathologic remodellation of advanced human aortic stenosis through the inhibition of MMP-9 and VEGF production.


Tuula Salo, Ylermi Soini, Jani Oiva, Kariylitalo, Antti Nissinen, Fausto Biancari, Tatu Juvonen, Jari Satta. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMT-3 and CMT-8) enable control of the pathologic remodellation of human aortic valve stenosis via MMP-9 and VEGF inhibition. International journal of cardiology. 2006 Aug 28;111(3):358-64

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PMID: 16242193

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