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Muscle weakness is consistently associated with falls in the elderly people, typically when present along with other risk factors. However, it remains unknown whether and how muscle weakness alone affects balance. This hampers development of more effective fall prevention strategies. Clinical observations suggest that the amount and distribution of muscle weakness influences balance control. We therefore investigated balance corrections in patients with either predominantly proximal (limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD); n=8) or distal (distal spinal muscular atrophy; n=5) leg weakness, and 27 matched healthy controls. Balance was perturbed using surface tilt rotations that were delivered randomly in eight directions. Balance measures were full body kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) of leg, arm, and trunk muscles. Both patient groups were more unstable than controls, as reflected by greater excursions of the centre of mass (COM), especially in the pitch (anterior-posterior (AP)) plane. COM displacements were greater in distal weakness patients. Patients with distal weakness had excessive and unstable trunk, knee and ankle movements, and this was present following both forward and backward directed balance perturbations, possibly reflecting the greater use of distal leg muscles in these directions. In contrast, the less weak proximal weakness patients demonstrated unstable trunk and ankle movements only for backward directed balance perturbations. Both patient groups used arm movements to compensate for their instability. We conclude that primarily distal but also proximal muscle weakness leads to significant postural instability. This observation, together with the retained ability of patients to use compensatory arm movements, provides targets that may be amenable to improvement with therapeutic intervention.


C G C Horlings, U M Küng, B G M van Engelen, N C Voermans, G J D Hengstman, A J van der Kooi, B R Bloem, J H J Allum. Balance control in patients with distal versus proximal muscle weakness. Neuroscience. 2009 Dec 29;164(4):1876-86

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PMID: 19796669

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