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Cyclin D1 is involved in regulating the transition of G1 to S-phase in the cell cycle through phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility product (pRB). Amplification and overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) have been reported in human breast cancers and are suggested to play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease process. Although cyclin D1 is potentially an important gene, relatively little is known about the distribution of its amplification in breast cancer cell lines. In this study, a cyclin D1 cosmid probe was isolated and used with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the gene in chromosomal spreads of 12 breast cancer cell lines. Nine cell lines showed increased gene copy levels of cyclin D1, including Five cell lines had more than six copies of cyclin D1 on sister chromatids and four had more than four copies but less than six copies grouped at the chromosome 11 q13 band. Three cell lines had two "normal" chromosome 11 and one and two additional derivative chromosome 11's with three and four 11q13 sites which lacked amplification of cyclin D1 on any of these sites. Using progesterone receptor (PR) gene as an internal control, a 2.0-fold or greater increase in cyclin D1 gene signals, was observed in five of the ten cell lines by Southern hybridization, the Amplification level of cyclin D1 varied from 2.3 to 19.6-fold. Three cell lines with low amplification of cyclin D1 showed overexpression of the gene by Northern analysis. Our experiments demonstrated that FISH was more sensitive than Southern blot at demonstrating low levels of gene amplification and, additionally, permitted assessment of the distribution of cyclin D1 gene among chromosomes.

Citation

Nie Dongsong, Jian Y Zhou. FISH is more sensitive than Southern analysis at identifying increased levels of cyclin D1 gene amplified in breast cancer cell lines. Molecular biology reports. 2010 Oct;37(7):3473-80

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PMID: 19967453

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