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Programmed cell death (PCD) is a precise, genetically controlled cellular process with important roles in plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, the genetic mechanisms that control PCD in plants are unclear. Two Arabidopsis genes, DAL1 and DAL2 (for Drosophila DIAP1 like 1 and 2), encoding RING finger proteins with homology to DIAP1 were identified, and a series of experiments were performed to elucidate their roles in the regulation of PCD and disease resistance. Expression of DAL1 and DAL2 genes was induced in Arabidopsis plants after inoculation with virulent and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syrinage pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 or after infiltration with fumonisin B1 (FB1). Plants with mutations in the DAL1 and DAL2 genes displayed more severe disease after inoculation with an avirulent strain of Pst DC3000, but they showed similar disease severity as the wild-type plant after inoculation with a virulent strain of Pst DC3000. Significant accumulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased cell death were observed in the dal1 and dal2 mutant plants after inoculation with the avirulent strain of Pst DC3000. The dal mutant plants underwent extensive PCD upon infiltration of FB1 and displayed higher levels of ROS accumulation, callose deposition, and autofluorescence than the wild-type plants. Our data suggest that DAL1 and DAL2 may act as negative regulators of PCD in Arabidopsis.


B M Vindhya S Basnayake, Dayong Li, Huijuan Zhang, Guojun Li, Nasar Virk, Fengming Song. Arabidopsis DAL1 and DAL2, two RING finger proteins homologous to Drosophila DIAP1, are involved in regulation of programmed cell death. Plant cell reports. 2011 Jan;30(1):37-48

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PMID: 20972793

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