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Copper is a cofactor for many essential enzymes in aerobic organisms. When intracellular copper levels are elevated, the Menkes (ATP7A) P-Type ATPase traffics from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) towards the plasma membrane to facilitate copper efflux. The ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) is required for maintenance of Golgi architecture and for vesicular trafficking, including the copper-responsive trafficking of ATP7A. Here we report an ATP7A-independent role of Arf1 in copper homeostasis. Whilst the loss of ATP7A function increased copper levels, RNA interference mediated Arf1 knockdown reduced copper accumulation in HeLa cells as well as in both wild-type and ATP7A-null cultured fibroblasts. Arf1 therefore affected copper levels independently of ATP7A mediated copper efflux. Knockdown of Arf79F, the Drosophila melanogasterArf1 orthologue, also reduced copper accumulation in cultured Drosophila S2 cells, indicating an evolutionarily conserved role for this protein in cellular copper homeostasis. Whereas severe Arf1 inhibition with brefeldin A caused fragmentation and dispersal of the TGN resident protein Golgin 97, the peri-nuclear localisation of the Golgin 97 was retained following Arf1 knockdown, consistent with a moderate reduction in Arf1 activity. Ctr1 levels at the plasma membrane of cultured fibroblast cells were reduced following Arf1 knockdown, indicating an Arf1-dependent trafficking pathway is required for correct distribution of this copper uptake protein. Arf1-dependent trafficking pathways are therefore required for optimal copper uptake efficiency in cultured human and Drosophila cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Adam Southon, Mark Greenough, Ya Hui Hung, Melanie Norgate, Richard Burke, James Camakaris. The ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) is involved in regulating copper uptake. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 2011 Jan;43(1):146-53

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PMID: 21034850

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