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One hundred years after Morton's demonstration of the anaesthetic effects of ether, T. Cecil Gray revolutionized anaesthesia with his introduction of balanced general anaesthesia. Gray's technique involved i.v. induction, administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent (curare), tracheal intubation, controlled ventilation, maintenance of unconsciousness with a light inhaled anaesthetic (supplemented with opioids if necessary), and reversal of neuromuscular blocking agent at the conclusion of the anaesthetic. In the 65 yr since his seminal papers, our drugs have changed, and i.v. anaesthetics suitable for maintenance of anaesthesia have been introduced, but the basic principles of general anaesthesia today are those set forward by Gray 65 yr ago.


S L Shafer. From d-tubocurarine to sugammadex: the contributions of T. Cecil Gray to modern anaesthetic practice. British journal of anaesthesia. 2011 Jul;107(1):97-102

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PMID: 21613280

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