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Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) provide a simple, robust, and unique platform for biosensing. Their catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and subsequent hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) disproportionation creates a sensitive electrochemical response to enzymatically generated H(2)O(2) on the N-CNT surface, eliminating the need for additional peroxidases or electron-transfer mediators. Glassy carbon electrodes were modified with 7.4 atom % N-CNTs, lactate oxidase (LOx), and a tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr)-modified Nafion binder. The resulting amperometric l-lactate biosensors displayed a sensitivity of 0.040 ± 0.002 A M(-1) cm(-2), a low operating potential of -0.23 V (vs Hg/Hg(2)SO(4)), a repeatability of 1.6% relative standard deviation (RSD) for 200 μM samples of lactate, a fabrication reproducibility of 5.0% (RSD), a limit of detection of 4.1 ± 1.6 μM, and a linear range of 14-325 μM. Additionally, over a 90 day period, the repeatability for 200 μM samples of lactate remained below 3.4% (RSD). Direct electron transfer was observed between the LOx redox-active center and the N-CNTs with the electroactive surface coverage determined to be 0.27 nmol cm(-2).


Jacob M Goran, Jennifer L Lyon, Keith J Stevenson. Amperometric detection of L-lactate using nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes modified with lactate oxidase. Analytical chemistry. 2011 Nov 1;83(21):8123-9

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PMID: 21942440

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