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Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a complex glycolipid that serves as a membrane anchor for many cell-surface proteins, such as Thy-1 and CD48. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) play important roles in many biological processes, such as signal transduction and cell-cell interaction, through their association with lipid rafts. Fatty acid remodeling of GPI-APs in the Golgi apparatus is required for their efficient association with lipid rafts, i.e., the unsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the PI moiety is exchanged for the saturated fatty acid by PGAP2 and PGAP3. To investigate the immunological role of the fatty acid remodeling of GPI-APs, we generated a Pgap3 knockout mouse. In this mouse, GPI-APs are expressed on the cell surface without fatty acid remodeling, and fail to associate with lipid rafts. Male Pgap3 knockout mice were born alive at a ratio lower than expected from Mendel's law, whereas the number of female mice followed Mendel's law. All mice exhibited growth retardation and abnormal reflexes such as limb grasping. We focused T cell function in these mice and found that T cell development in the absence of Pgap3 was normal. However, the response of T cells was enhanced in Pgap3 knockout mice in both in vitro and in vivo studies, including alloreactive response, antigen-specific immune response, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Cross-linking of Thy-1 in wild-type cells inhibited the signal transduced by the T cell receptor (TCR), whereas cross-linking of Thy-1 in Pgap3 knockout cells enhanced the TCR signal. These results suggest that GPI-APs localized in lipid rafts may modulate signaling through the TCR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Hidekazu Murakami, Yetao Wang, Hidetoshi Hasuwa, Yusuke Maeda, Taroh Kinoshita, Yoshiko Murakami. Enhanced response of T lymphocytes from Pgap3 knockout mouse: Insight into roles of fatty acid remodeling of GPI anchored proteins. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2012 Jan 27;417(4):1235-41

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PMID: 22227195

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