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Recently, bioactive benzoxazinoids were discovered in cereal grains and bakery products. In this study, we studied the uptake, distribution, and metabolism of these secondary metabolites using a pig model. Twelve benzoxazinoid compounds and their 4 transformation products were quantified in the pigs' diets and biofluids using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA-glc) was the most dominant benzoxazinoid (232 nmol/g DM) seconded by the double-hexose derivative of DIBOA (provisionally characterized here as DIBOA-glc-hex) in the rye-based diet. DIBOA-glc (derived from the diet and intestinal deglycosylation of DIBOA-glc-hex) was apparently reduced to 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA-glc), the most dominant benzoxazinoid in the blood (829 nmol/L). The benzoxazinoid compounds were excreted in the urine, with HBOA-glc (18 μmol/L) as a major metabolite. In this study, we determined for the first time the bioavailability of dietary benzoxazinoids that have high digestibility, distribution, and metabolism in mammals. These findings could be a milestone for the exploitation of healthful and pharmacological properties of benzoxazinoids.


Khem B Adhikari, Bente B Laursen, Helle N Lærke, Inge S Fomsgaard. Bioactive benzoxazinoids in rye bread are absorbed and metabolized in pigs. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2012 Mar 14;60(10):2497-506

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PMID: 22352867

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