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Hypotensive anesthesia with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) often is associated with reflex tachycardia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a small bolus of esmolol could counteract SNP-induced reflex tachycardia and sympathetic activation without affecting blood pressure. Using a time-series study design, 27 healthy young patients scheduled for mandibular osteotomy were enrolled in this study. General anesthesia was maintained with 2% sevoflurane and 67% nitrous oxide in oxygen. SNP was administered to decrease the mean arterial pressure to 55 to 65 mm Hg. When heart rate (HR) increased reflexively to higher than 95 beats/min from SNP-induced hypotension, esmolol 0.5 mg/kg was given. Blood pressure and HR were measured, and the low-frequency component (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) of systolic blood pressure variability and high-frequency component (0.15 to 0.4 Hz) of HR variability were calculated to evaluate the autonomic condition. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance after multiple comparisons or t test. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 27 patients analyzed, 19 patients (70%) required esmolol. In these patients, SNP caused an increase in the low-frequency component of systolic blood pressure variability and a decrease in the high-frequency component of HR variability, leading to tachycardia (HR range, 95.9 ± 7.3 to 106.7 ± 7.4 beats/min; P < .001). Esmolol suppressed the effects of SNP on the low-frequency component of systolic blood pressure variability and high-frequency component of HR variability, resulting in an immediate decrease in HR to 86.9 ± 6.2 beats/min (P < .001), whereas mean arterial pressure remained unchanged. A small bolus of esmolol can suppress reflex tachycardia without significantly changing mean arterial pressure. Thus, esmolol restores the autonomic imbalance induced by SNP during hypotensive anesthesia. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Hiroshi Hanamoto, Mitsutaka Sugimura, Yoshinari Morimoto, Chiho Kudo, Aiji Boku, Hitoshi Niwa. Small bolus of esmolol effectively prevents sodium nitroprusside-induced reflex tachycardia without adversely affecting blood pressure. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2012 May;70(5):1045-51

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PMID: 22364858

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