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Phospholipase D3 (PLD3) is a non-classical, poorly characterized member of the PLD superfamily of signaling enzymes. PLD3 is a type II glycoprotein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, is expressed in a wide range of tissues and cells, and undergoes dramatic upregulation in neurons and muscle cells during differentiation. Using an in vitro skeletal muscle differentiation system, we define the ER-tethering mechanism and report that increased PLD3 expression enhances myotube formation, whereas a putatively dominant-negative PLD3 mutant isoform reduces myotube formation. ER stress, which also enhances myotube formation, is shown here to increase PLD3 expression levels. PLD3 protein was observed to localize to a restricted set of subcellular membrane sites in myotubes that may derive from or constitute a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum. These findings suggest that PLD3 plays a role in myogenesis during myotube formation, potentially in the events surrounding ER reorganization.

Citation

Mary Osisami, Wahida Ali, Michael A Frohman. A role for phospholipase D3 in myotube formation. PloS one. 2012;7(3):e33341

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PMID: 22428023

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