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This study explored the reduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using chi-square analysis. Cells were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 μM Cr(VI) for 12, 24, or 36 h. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) experiments and measurements of intracellular ATP levels were performed by spectrophotometry or bioluminescence assays following Cr(VI) treatment. The chi-square test was used to determine the difference between cell survival rate and ATP levels. For the chi-square analysis, the results of the MTT or ATP experiments were transformed into a relative ratio with respect to the control (%). The relative ATP levels increased at 12 h, decreased at 24 h, and increased slightly again at 36 h following 4, 8, 16, 32 μM Cr(VI) treatment, corresponding to a "V-shaped" curve. Furthermore, the results of the chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant difference of the ATP level in the 32-μM Cr(VI) group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the chi-square test can be applied to analyze the interference effects of Cr(VI) on ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes. The decreased ATP levels at 24 h indicated disruption of mitochondrial energy metabolism and the slight increase of ATP levels at 36 h indicated partial recovery of mitochondrial function or activated glycolysis in L-02 hepatocytes.


Yang Yuan, Li Peng, Hu Gong-Hua, Dai Lu, Zhong Xia-Li, Zhou Yu, Zhong Cai-Gao. Chi-square analysis of the reduction of ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas médicas e biológicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofísica ... [et al.]. 2012 Jun;45(6):482-7

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PMID: 22437481

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