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We developed a Questionnaire on Everyday Navigational Ability (QuENA) to detect topographical disorientation (TD) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (PwAD). In the QuENA, 3 items were designed to assess landmark agnosia, 2 for egocentric disorientation, 3 for heading disorientation, and 2 for inattention. The PwAD and their caregivers rated QuENA according to which TD symptoms would occur. Regarding the construct validity, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the caregiver version of the QuENA fits the proposed TD model well but the patient version does not. Regarding the internal consistency, the Cronbach's α for the caregiver version was 0.91 and that for the patient version was 0.87. A discrepancy existed between the appraisal of navigational abilities by PwAD and by caregivers, and it was correlated with the number of getting lost (GL) events. The caregiver version of QuENA is a feasible, reliable, and valid instrument to assess TD and it also discriminates well between the PwAD with GL and those without.


Ming-Chyi Pai, Chih-Chien Lee, Ya-Chi Yang, Yen-Ti Lee, Kuang-Chi Chen, Shu-Han Lin, Sheng-Siang Jheng, Pei-Wen Sun, Pei-Ju Cheng. Development of a questionnaire on everyday navigational ability to assess topographical disorientation in Alzheimer's disease. American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. 2012 Feb;27(1):65-72

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PMID: 22467415

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