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The metals/metaloids lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are among the leading toxic agents in the environment. They represent an important source of dangerous exposure in humans, particularly in industry workers. The most serious consequences of exposure to those heavy metals are cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In studies of human exposure to Pb, Cd, and As alone and in a mixture markers signaling the subtle, early lesions that occur in the human body are still lacking. It is appropriate to develop high throughput techniques and use non-invasive materials. The techniques currently used in classic epidemiological studies allow selection of single markers of changes of exposure to chronic low dose levels of metal/metaloids mixtures. However, application of proteomic techniques in such studies may allow the selection of new biomarkers of environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals characterized by high sensitivity and specificity. As presented in our review paper, proteomic techniques in combination with appropriate statistical methods allow the selection of potential markers to estimate the changes in the human body when exposed to those heavy metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Barbara Kossowska, Ilona Dudka, Roman Gancarz, Jolanta Antonowicz-Juchniewicz. Application of classic epidemiological studies and proteomics in research of occupational and environmental exposure to lead, cadmium and arsenic. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. 2013 Jan;216(1):1-7

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PMID: 22487275

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