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The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was introduced in high risk children and into the private market in Costa Rica in 2004 (<5% annual birth cohort). The aim of this study was to compare the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype (ST) distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns and potential coverage before and after partial introduction of PCV-7. A comparison between the S. pneumoniae isolates obtained and serotyped from the middle ear fluid (MEF) of Costa Rican children with otitis media between years 1999 and 2003 (before PCV-7 usage) and those isolates obtained from 2004 to 2008. A total of 145 and 218 MEF S. pneumoniae were serotyped between years 1999 and 2003 and 2004 and 2008, respectively. Considering a 19F outbreak observed between years 1999 and 2003, the following statistically significant changes in serotype distribution were detected between 1999 and 2003 and 2004 and 2008: ST 3: 4.8-12.8% (P=0.01); ST 11A: 0-4.1% (P=0.01); ST 14: 3.5-21.1% (P<0.001) and ST 19F: 52.4-18.3% (P<0.05). Comparison of the two study periods demonstrated that during 2004 and 2008 a statistically significant decrease in penicillin non-susceptible serotypes (36.2-20.4% [P=0.003]) and a statistically significant increase in trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole resistant serotypes (54.9-68.5%, respectively [P=0.03]) was observed. Potential pneumococcal vaccines coverage between 1999 and 2003 and between 2004 and 2008 were: for PCV-7: 77.2-60.5%, respectively (P=0.001); for the 10-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-10): 78.6-61.4%, respectively (P=0.0008) and for the 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-13): 84.8-79.3%, respectively (P=0.2). Changes in the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of MEF S. pneumoniae have been observed in Costa Rican children with OM. Because of the limited use of PCV-7 during the study period, these changes probably cannot be attributed to PCV-7 use. Between 2004 and 2008, PCV-13 offered the highest potential vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Silvia Guevara, Arturo Abdelnour, Carolina Soley, Nurith Porat, Ron Dagan, Adriano Arguedas. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated from the middle ear fluid of Costa Rican children following introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into a limited population. Vaccine. 2012 Jun 6;30(26):3857-61

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PMID: 22521846

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