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    The olfactory function can be affected by occupational and environmental exposure to various neurotoxicants that can be transported through the olfactory pathway. Olfactory impairment is a highly recurrent non-motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and is considered an early predictive sign of neurodegeneration. Changes in olfactory perception may be caused by a dopaminergic dysregulation, possibly related to changes at the level of dopamine receptors. Manganese is an essential element that can become neurotoxic in various conditions inducing an overload in the organism. Being actively transported through the olfactory tract, manganese can cause impairment of olfactory function and motor coordination in different age groups like children and elderly. Odor and motor changes are interrelated and may be caused by a Mn-induced dopaminergic dysregulation affecting both functions. Given these findings, further research is imperative on the possible role of manganese exposure as a pathogenetic factor for Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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    Silvia Zoni, Giulia Bonetti, Roberto Lucchini. Olfactory functions at the intersection between environmental exposure to manganese and Parkinsonism. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS). 2012 Jun;26(2-3):179-82

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    PMID: 22664337

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