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    Infectious diseases due to Gram-negative bacteria are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antimicrobial agents represent one major therapeutic tools implicated to treat these infections. The misuse of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the emergence of resistant strains of Gram-negatives in particular Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters; they have an effect not only on a human but on the public health when bacteria use the resistance mechanisms to spread in the hospital environment and to the community outside the hospitals by means of mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. They have developed several mechanisms by which they can withstand to antimicrobials, these mechanisms include the production of Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases, furthermore, Gram-negative bacteria are now capable of spreading such resistance between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters using mobile genetic elements as vehicles for such resistance mechanisms rendering antibiotics useless. Therefore, addressing the issue of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance is considered one of most urgent priorities. This review will help to illustrate different resistance mechanisms; ESBLs, carbapenemases encoded by genes carried by mobile genetic elements, which are used by Gram-negative bacteria to escape antimicrobial effect.


    Allaaeddin El Salabi, Timothey R Walsh, Chedly Chouchani. Extended spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenemases and mobile genetic elements responsible for antibiotics resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Critical reviews in microbiology. 2013 May;39(2):113-22

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    PMID: 22667455

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