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    In the critically ill, mineralocorticoid deficiency (MD) is associated with greater disease severity, the development of acute renal insufficiency, and increased mortality. We hypothesized that severely injured trauma patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock would demonstrate a high degree of MD. We also hypothesized that MD in these patients would be associated with increased length of stay, hypotension, fluid requirements, and acute kidney injury (AKI). Thirty-two trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock on admission to the trauma bay (SBP <90 mm Hg × 2) were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained on ICU admission and 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours later. Plasma aldosterone (PA) and renin (PR) were assayed by radioimmunoassay. MD was defined as a ratio of PA/PR ≤2. Demographic data, injury severity score, ICU and hospital length of stay, fluid requirements, mean arterial pressure, serum sodium, hypotension, and risk for AKI were compared for patients with and without MD. At ICU admission, 48% of patients met criteria for MD. Patients with MD were significantly more likely to experience hypotension (MAP ≤60 mm Hg) during the study period. MD patients required significantly more units of blood in 48 h than non-MD patients (13 [7-22] versus 5 [2-7], P = 0.015) and had increased crystalloid requirements (18L [14-23] versus 9L [6-10], P < 0.001). MD patients were at higher risk for AKI according to RIFLE and AKIN criteria. MD is a common entity in trauma patients presenting in hemorrhagic shock. Patients with MD required a more aggressive resuscitative effort, were more likely to experience hypotension, and had a higher risk of AKI than non-MD patients. Future studies are needed to fully understand the impact of MD following trauma and the potential role for hormonal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Nikolai S Tolstoy, Majid Aized, Morgan P McMonagle, Daniel N Holena, Jose L Pascual, Seema S Sonnad, Carrie A Sims. Mineralocorticoid deficiency in hemorrhagic shock. The Journal of surgical research. 2013 Apr;180(2):232-7

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    PMID: 22683082

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