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Hemorrhagic shock contributes to coagulopathy after trauma. We investigated daily changes of coagulation components and coagulation function for 5 days in hemorrhaged and resuscitated pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomized into the sham control (C) and the hemorrhage and lactated Ringer's resuscitation (H-LR) groups. On day 1, hemorrhage was induced in the H-LR group by bleeding 35% of the total blood volume, followed by LR resuscitation at three times the bled volume. Pigs in the C group were not hemorrhaged or resuscitated. Hemodynamics and coagulation were measured daily after H-LR on day 1 to day 5. No changes in hemodynamics and coagulation function occurred in C. Hemorrhage decreased mean arterial pressure and increased heart rate. LR resuscitation corrected these changes within 2 hours. Compared with the baseline values (BL) on day 1, fibrinogen levels were decreased to 76% ± 6% by H-LR on day 1, increased to 217% ± 16% on day 2, and remained increased thereafter; platelet counts were decreased to 63% ± 5% by H-LR on day 1 and remained lower on days 2 and 3 but returned to BL by days 4 and 5 (all p < 0.05). Thrombin generation was decreased by H-LR on days 1 and 2 but then increased to above BL on days 4 and 5. Coagulation factor levels were decreased by H-LR on day 1 but returned to BL on day 3 except for factor XIII. Clot strength was decreased by H-LR on day 1 and returned to BL by day 2. Clot rapidity did not change on day 1 but was decreased on days 2 and 3 and returned to BL on days 4 and 5. Hemorrhage and resuscitation reduced coagulation components and compromised coagulation function, which showed different recovery profiles over the 5-day study period.


Wenjun Z Martini, Douglas S Cortez, Michael A Dubick, Lorne H Blackbourne. Different recovery profiles of coagulation factors, thrombin generation, and coagulation function after hemorrhagic shock in pigs. The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2012 Sep;73(3):640-7

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PMID: 22710770

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