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Frailty syndrome is frequently encountered in elderly populations. Frailty has been defined as a geriatric syndrome of increased vulnerability to environmental factors. Although knowledge of this syndrome continues to develop, there are still many areas of uncertainty. The pathophysiological pathways, role of biomarkers in the early identification of this syndrome and best management strategies are still under investigation. This study is a literature review of articles published on frailty syndrome in English, French and Spanish. Frailty and aging are similar processes with some differences. Multiple pathophysiological models of frailty have been studied. Factors associated with frailty include hormonal adjustments, sarcopenia and vitamin deficiencies among others. Biomarkers have been studied, but they are not specific. Phenotypes have been developed, but early recognition and prevention of this syndrome are still difficult. In conclusion, early recognition of this syndrome is of paramount importance. Preventative strategies need to be studied. The role of specific biomarkers in early detection of frailty needs to be defined. Clinical trials are needed to find better interventions for this syndrome.


Marco Ruiz, Charles Cefalu, Tom Reske. Frailty syndrome in geriatric medicine. The American journal of the medical sciences. 2012 Nov;344(5):395-8

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PMID: 22739566

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