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Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) are at increased risk for metabolic complications. Type 1 and some type 2 diabetic patients have elevated levels of the ketone bodies acetoacetate (AA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). The aim of this study was to examine how hyperketonemia in diabetic mothers affects markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in their offspring. Blood was obtained from 23 diabetic mothers and 13 healthy mothers and their infants' umbilical cords at delivery. Interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and protein carbonyl (protein oxidation) levels were determined by ELISA. U937 human monocyte cell culture was used to examine the effect of AA and BHB on secretion of MCP-1. There was a significant increase in the levels of AA in cord blood of IDMs compared with cord blood of infants of healthy mothers. A significant increase in the levels of protein oxidation (p < 0.05) and MCP-1 levels (p < 0.05) was observed in the cord blood of IDMs. The level of MCP-1 correlated significantly (r = 0.51, p = 0.01) with the concentration of AA in the IDMs. In further experiments with cultured monocytes treated with exogenous AA (0-4 mM), a significant increase in MCP-1 secretion was observed in AA- but not BHB-treated monocytes. Blood levels of AA and MCP-1 are elevated in IDMs, which may contribute to the development of the metabolic complications seen in IDMs. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Dalibor Kurepa, Arun K Pramanik, Venkatakrishna Kakkilaya, Gloria Caldito, Lynn J Groome, Joseph A Bocchini, Sushil K Jain. Elevated acetoacetate and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in cord blood of infants of diabetic mothers. Neonatology. 2012;102(3):163-8

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PMID: 22776897

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