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WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Stretch of the urothelium, as occurs during bladder filling, is associated with a release of ATP that is postulated to act as a sensory neurotransmitter. The regulation of ATP release is poorly understood and in particular if there is a feedback mechanism provided by ATP itself. Adenosine, a breakdown product of ATP, is a potent inhibitor of stretch-induced ATP release, acting through and A1 receptor; endogenous levels are about 0.6μM. Data are consistent with ATP release relying on the rise of intracellular Ca2+. Transepithelial potential also controls ATP release, also acting via an A1 receptor-dependent pathway. To test the hypothesis that distension-induced ATP release from the bladder urothelium is regulated by adenosine as well as changes to transurothelial potential (TEP). To examine the role of changes to intracellular [Ca(2+) ] in ATP release. Rabbit urothelium/suburothelium membranes were used in an Ussing chamber system. Distension was induced by fluid removal from the chamber bathing the serosal (basolateral) membrane face. The TEP and short-circuit current were measured. ATP was measured in samples aspirated from the serosal chamber by a luciferin-luciferase assay. Intracellular [Ca(2+) ] was measured in isolated urothelial cells using the fluorochrome Fura-2. All experiments were performed at 37°C. Distension-induced ATP release was decreased by adenosine (1-10 μm) and enhanced by adenosine deaminase and A1- (but not A2-) receptor antagonists. Distension-induced ATP release was reduced by 2-APB, nifedipine and capsazepine; capsaicin induced ATP release in the absence of distension. ATP and capsaicin, but not adenosine, generated intracellular Ca(2+) transients; adenosine did not affect the ATP-generated Ca(2+) transient. ATP release was dependent on a finite transepithelial potential. Changes to TEP, in the absence of distension, generated ATP release that was in turn reduced by adenosine. Adenosine exerts a powerful negative feedback control of ATP release from the urothelium via A1 receptor activation. Distension-induced ATP release may be mediated by a rise of the intracellular [Ca(2+) ]. Modulation of distension-induced ATP release by adenosine and TEP may have a common pathway. © 2012 BJU International.

Citation

Bryony M Dunning-Davies, Christopher H Fry, Dina Mansour, Douglas R Ferguson. The regulation of ATP release from the urothelium by adenosine and transepithelial potential. BJU international. 2013 Mar;111(3):505-13

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PMID: 22882496

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