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Hospital-acquired infection is an important public health problem that contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hospital-acquired infections and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in Felege-Hiwot referral hospital. The study was conducted during April-August 2009. A total of 1383 patients admitted to Surgical and Gynecology/Obstetrics wards were followed throughout their stay in the hospital for development of infections. Data on sociodemographic, underlying diseases and risk factors were collected and analysed Laboratory investigations including culture, biochemical tests, Gram staining and antibacterial sensitivity tests using disc diffusion methods were done. Of the 1383 patients assessed 961 surgical, 333 obstetrics and 89 gynaecology patients assessed, 17.1% 21.0% and 13.5% developed infections, respectively. The over all incidence of hospital acquired infections was 246 (17.8%) with 251 (18.1%) episodes of bacterial infections. Urinary tract and surgical site infections were detected in 118 (48%) and 112 (45.6%) of the cases, respectively. Of the bacterial isolates, 132 (52.6%) were gram negative and 119 (47.4%) gram positive. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, were the dominant gram negative isolates accounting for 49 (19.5%), 36 (14.3%) and 26 (10.4%), respectively. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, and Enteroccocus species were isolated in 91 (36.3%), 18 (7.2%) and 10 (4.0%), respectively. Surgery, catheterization, underlying diseases, antibiotics prophylaxis and length of hospital stay were risk factors for infection (P<0.0001). Most, >80% of isolates showed high rate of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and amoxacillin-clavulanic acid The incidence of surgical site infection in surgical and UTI in obstetrics patients was high. Escherichia coli from urinary tract infection and Staphylococcus aureus from surgical wounds were predominant isolates. The isolates showed high resistance to common antibiotics.

Citation

Silabat Melaku, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Meku Damtie, Kassahun Alamrew. Hospital acquired infections among surgical, gynaecology and obstetrics patients in Felege-Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian medical journal. 2012 Apr;50(2):135-44

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PMID: 22924282

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