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Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) are abundant toxins in venoms of viper snakes and play a relevant role in the complex and multifactorial tissue damage characteristic of Viperidae envenoming. Jararhagin, a SVMP isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom, induces a fast onset hemorrhagic lesions acting directly on the capillary vessels, which are disrupted by toxin adhesion and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins like collagen IV. Jararhagin also triggers inflammatory response, where endothelial cells are activated, resulting in the enhanced rolling of circulating leukocytes, nitric oxide generation, prostacyclin production and pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Jararhagin also decreases endothelial cells viability inducing apoptosis (in vitro studies). In the present study we attempted to correlate the effect of sub-apoptotic doses of jararhagin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, using microarray assay, real time PCR and detection of specific proteins on HUVEC surface or released in the medium. Jararhagin was effective in activate and up-regulate the gene expression of different mediators such as E-selectin, VCAM-1, IL-8, CD69, Ang-2 and MMP-10. Despite the increase in expression of genes coding for such molecules, jararhagin did not induce increased concentrations of E-selectin, VCAM-1 and IL-8 produced or released by endothelial cells. In conclusion, jararhagin is able to activate pro-inflammatory gene transcription on endothelial cells however this stimulus is not sufficient to result in the consequent expression of pro-inflammatory effectors molecules like E-selectin, VCAM-1 and IL-8. The time courses of these events, as well as the doses of jararhagin are important points to be addressed herein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Daiana S Lopes, Eliana Faquim-Mauro, Geraldo S Magalhães, Iara C Lima, Cristiani Baldo, Jay W Fox, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva, Patricia B Clissa. Gene expression of inflammatory mediators induced by jararhagin on endothelial cells. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 2012 Nov;60(6):1072-84

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PMID: 22960448

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