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To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of teplizumab and evaluate relevant clinical trial data. Searches of MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts,, American Diabetes Association scientific posters, and Google Scholar (1966-May 2012) were conducted using the key words teplizumab, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, MGA031, and hOKT3γ1 (Ala-Ala). Searches were limited to articles published in English. Clinical trials evaluating teplizumab for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) published in English were selected from the data sources. All published relevant abstracts were included. References cited in identified articles were used for additional citations. T1DM accounts for up to 10% of all cases of diabetes mellitus. T1DM is characterized as a chronic and progressive autoimmune disease leading to the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. Teplizumab is a humanized Fc-mutated anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody that alters the function of the T-lymphocytes that mediate the destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. While clinical data are limited, both Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies have demonstrated preserved C-peptide response as a measure of insulin production, decreased exogenous insulin use, and improved glycemic control following a 12- to 14-day teplizumab infusion in patients diagnosed with T1DM within the previous 6 weeks. However, 1 Phase 3 trial failed to find the same benefits in those diagnosed with T1DM within the previous 12 weeks when a lower cumulative teplizumab dose was used. Initial studies indicated that teplizumab is well tolerated, with a self-limiting rash as the most commonly reported adverse effect. Teplizumab is an anti-CD3 human monoclonal antibody with promising activity in treatment of patients with T1DM. Results from Phase 3 trials are needed to further determine safety, efficacy, and dosing frequency.


Jessica W Skelley, Lindsey K Elmore, Jeffrey A Kyle. Teplizumab for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 2012 Oct;46(10):1405-12

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PMID: 22968521

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