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The main cause for male infertility is oligo-azoospermia. Correct etiological diagnosis of azoospermia is important. If sperm analysis is abnormal, an endocrinological evaluation should be performed. The causes for azoospermia can be divided into obstructive and non-obstructive causes; the differential diagnosis is based on the levels of serum gonadotropins and testosterone. A frequent cause for azoospermia is the use of testosterone or anabolic steroids. However, spermatogenesis generally recovers spontaneously after discontinuing the medication. For other cases of oligo/azoospermia, the most commonly used treatment modalities or antiestrogens, and testicular sperm aspiration or microscopic testicular sperm extraction in association with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


Laure Morin-Papunen, Riitta Koivunen. Treatment of infertility--part II (male infertility)]. Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja. 2012;128(15):1568-75

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PMID: 22970608

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