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Applications of PASADENA in biomedicine are continuing to emerge due to recent demonstrations that hyperpolarized metabolic substrates and the corresponding reaction products persist sufficiently long to be detected in vivo. Biomedical applications of PASADENA typically differ from their basic science counterparts in that the polarization endowed by addition of parahydrogen is usually transferred from nascent protons to coupled storage nuclei for subsequent detection on a higher field imaging instrument. These pre-imaging preparations usually take place at low field, but commercial spectrometers capable of heteronuclear pulsed NMR at frequencies in the range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz are scarce though, in comparison to single channel consoles in that field regime. Reported here is a probe circuit that can be used in conjunction with a phase and amplitude modulation scheme we have developed called PANORAMIC (Precession And Nutation for Observing Rotations At Multiple Intervals about the Carrier), that expands a single channel console capability to double or generally multiple resonance with minimal hardware modifications. The demands of this application are geared towards uniform preparation, and since the hyperpolarized molecules are being detected externally at high field, detection sensitivity is secondary to applied field uniformity over a large reaction volume to accommodate heterogeneous chemistry of gas molecules at a liquid interface. The probe circuit was therefore configured with a large (40 mL) Helmholtz sample coil for uniformity, and double-tuned to the Larmor precession frequencies of (13)C/(1)H (128/510 kHz) within a custom solenoidal electromagnet at a static field of 12 mT. Traditional (on-resonant) as well as PANORAMIC NMR signals with signal to noise ratios of approximately 75 have been routinely acquired with this probe and spectrometer setup from 1024 repetitions on the high frequency channel. The proton excitation pulse width was 240 μs at 6.31 W, compared to a carbon-13 pulse width of 220 μs at 2.51 W. When PANORAMIC refocusing waveforms were transmitted at a carrier frequency of 319 kHz, integrated signal intensities from a spin-echo sequence at both proton (510 kHz) and carbon-13 (128 kHz) frequencies were within experimental error to block pulse analogs transmitted on resonance. We anticipate that this probe circuit design could be extended to higher and lower frequencies, and that when used in conjunction with PANORAMIC phase and amplitude modulated arrays, will enable low field imaging consoles to serve as multinuclear consoles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Sasidhar Tadanki, Raul D Colon, Jay Moore, Kevin W Waddell. Double tuning a single input probe for heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy at low field. Journal of magnetic resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997). 2012 Oct;223:64-7

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PMID: 22975236

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