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The objective of this study was to clarify variations of the ceramide (CER) profile in human stratum corneum (SC) in different seasons and in different regions of the body and to estimate the contributions of CERs to the SC barrier and water-holding functions. Based on the information that there are great variations of SC functions among body sites, we compared the CER profiles obtained from ten different anatomical sites in healthy Japanese males in four seasons. Not only the physiological parameters of skin but also the CER profile showed body region and seasonal variations. The total CER level, the CER composition and the C34-CER[NS] species displayed strong correlations with the values of transepidermal water loss and capacitance throughout the body. Especially in the cheek, a strong correlation between the capacitance and the CER profile was observed. There were seasonal variations of the CER profile in the lip, upper arm and palm. Our results indicate that regional and seasonal variations of the CER profile may contribute to SC functions.


Junko Ishikawa, Yoshie Shimotoyodome, Shotaro Ito, Yuki Miyauchi, Tsutomu Fujimura, Takashi Kitahara, Tadashi Hase. Variations in the ceramide profile in different seasons and regions of the body contribute to stratum corneum functions. Archives of dermatological research. 2013 Mar;305(2):151-62

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PMID: 22987221

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