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Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis and some microsporidia. A total of 223 samples from four drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and six locations of influence (LI) on four river basins from Madrid, Spain, were analyzed from spring 2008 to winter 2009. Microsporidia were detected in 49% of samples (109/223), Cyclospora spp. were detected in 9% (20/223), and both parasites were found in 5.4% (12/223) of samples. Human-pathogenic microsporidia were detected, including Enterocytozoon bieneusi (C, D, and D-like genotypes), Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi (genotypes I and III), and Anncaliia algerae. C. cayetanensis was identified in 17 of 20 samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows a year-long longitudinal study of C. cayetanensis in drinking water treatment plants. Additionally, data about the presence and molecular characterization of the human-pathogenic microsporidia in drinking water, wastewater, and locations of influence during 1 year in Spain are shown. It is noteworthy that although the DWTPs and WWTPs studied meet European and national regulations on water sanitary quality, both parasites were found in water samples from these plants, supporting the idea that new and appropriate controls and regulations for drinking water, wastewater, and recreational waters should be proposed to avoid health risks from these pathogens.

Citation

Ana Luz Galván, Angela Magnet, Fernando Izquierdo, Soledad Fenoy, Cristina Rueda, Carmen Fernández Vadillo, Nuno Henriques-Gil, Carmen del Aguila. Molecular characterization of human-pathogenic microsporidia and Cyclospora cayetanensis isolated from various water sources in Spain: a year-long longitudinal study. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2013 Jan;79(2):449-59

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PMID: 23124243

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