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Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a standard technique in environmental microbiology. More than 20 years have passed since this technique was first described, and it is currently used for the detection of ribosomal RNA, messenger RNA, and functional genes encoded on chromosomes. This review focuses on the advancement and applications of FISH combined with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD, also known as tyramide signal amplification or TSA), in the detection of environmental microorganisms. Significant methodological improvements have been made in CARD-FISH technology, including its combination with other techniques and instruments.


Kengo Kubota. CARD-FISH for environmental microorganisms: technical advancement and future applications. Microbes and environments / JSME. 2013;28(1):3-12

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PMID: 23124765

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