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India and China have booming chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Both countries also represent expanding markets for foreign chemical and healthcare companies. All such products require reproductive toxicity testing before marketing. The ICH testing guidelines for medicinal products are not applicable in China and India. Nonetheless, reproductive toxicity studies designed and run to ICH principles are generally acceptable for submission. The Chinese guidelines take into consideration traditional Chinese medicines, which are usually mixtures. Likewise, the specific recommendations of India and China for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals and pesticides differ from those of the OECD and the USEPA. Again, studies performed in accordance with internationally recognized principles are usually acceptable for submission in both countries. The Chinese guideline for the reproductive toxicity testing of agrochemicals is currently under revision; the new version is expected to resemble more closely the requirements of the OECD and the USEPA. As a member of the OECD, India has conducted Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection, accreditation, and monitoring activities since 2004. China has made several attempts to join the Council Decisions on Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals since 2005. Currently 47 laboratories in China have been certified by the national GLP authorities. Several laboratories in China have also been recently been certified by OECD member countries as GLP compliant. In India, there are currently 23 GLP-Certified laboratories; about six of these are also AALAC accredited. The specific study designs specified in the guidelines of China and India for reproductive toxicity studies are described in detail in this chapter.


K S Rao, Jing Dong. Nonclinical reproductive toxicity testing requirements for drugs, pesticides, and industrial chemicals in India and China. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2013;947:13-30

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PMID: 23138892

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