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In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.


François Spézia, Paul C Barrow. The teratology testing of cosmetics. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2013;947:91-4

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PMID: 23138898

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