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We examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) to investigate the pathophysiology and mechanism of communicating hydrocephalus compared to obstructive hydrocephalus. We obtained CSF samples from 8 INPH, 10 SAH-induced hydrocephalus, and 6 unmatched patients with non-hemorrhagic obstructive hydrocephalus during their ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and total tau in the CSF were analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean VEGF levels in the CSF of patients with SAH-induced hydrocephalus, INPH, and obstructive hydrocephalus were 239 ± 131, 239 ± 75, and 163 ± 122 pg/mL, respectively. The total tau concentrations in the CSF of the groups were 1139 ± 1900, 325 ± 325, and 1550 ± 2886 pg/mL, respectively. TNF-α values were 114 ± 34, 134 ± 38, and 55 ± 16 pg/mL, respectively. TGF-β1 values were 953 ± 430, 869 ± 447, and 136 ± 63 pg/mL, respectively. A significant difference in TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels was observed only between SAH-induced and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus, and between INPH and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus (p<0.01). No significant differences in the 4 CSF biomarker levels were observed between INPH and SAH-induced hydrocephalus, whereas CSF TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared to those in patients with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Post-SAH hydrocephalus and INPH are probably more destructive to neural tissues, and then stimulate the inflammatory reaction and healing process, compared with obstructive hydrocephalus.


Jeong-Hyun Lee, Dong-Hyuk Park, Dong-Bin Back, Jea-Young Lee, Chang-In Lee, Kyung-Jae Park, Shin-Hyuk Kang, Tai-Hyoung Cho, Yong-Gu Chung. Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced chronic hydrocephalus: a pilot study. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2012 Dec;18(12):PR19-25

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PMID: 23197244

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