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The objective of this study was to test a drug delivery system that combines iontophoresis and cation-exchange fibers as drug matrices for the controlled transdermal delivery of antiparkinsonian drug apomorphine. Positively charged apomorphine was bound to the ion-exchange groups of the cation-exchange fibers until it was released by mobile counter-ions in the external solution. The release of the drug was controlled by modifying either the fiber type or the ionic composition of the external solution. Due to high affinity of apomorphine toward the ion-exchanger, a clear reduction in the in vitro transdermal fluxes from the fibers was observed compared to the respective fluxes from apomorphine solutions. Changes in the ionic composition of the donor formulations affected both the release and iontophoretic flux of the drug. Upon the application of higher co-ion concentrations or co-ions of higher valence in the donor formulation, the release from the fibers was enhanced, but the iontophoretic steady-state flux was decreased. Overall, the present study has demonstrated a promising approach using ion-exchange fibers for controlling the release and iontophoretic transdermal delivery of apomorphine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kristina Malinovskaja, Timo Laaksonen, Kyösti Kontturi, Jouni Hirvonen. Ion-exchange and iontophoresis-controlled delivery of apomorphine. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V. 2013 Apr;83(3):477-84

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PMID: 23207323

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