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Infuse(®) is used clinically to promote bone repair. Its efficacy is dependent on a crosslinked collagen carrier/scaffold system that has come under scrutiny due to an inability to control BMP-2 release, which may result in unwanted outcomes such as heterotopic ossification. In this study, keratose biomaterial was evaluated as a new carrier/scaffold. Keratose was mixed with BMP-2, fabricated into a scaffold, and implanted into a critical-size rat femoral defect. This construct showed bridging as early as 4 weeks and induced trabecular morphology characteristic of a remodeling hard fracture callus at 16 weeks. Compared to the normal cortical bone, the regenerated tissue had greater volume and mineral content but less density and ultimate shear stress values. Moreover, μ-CT, biomechanics, FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, and polarized light microscopy data showed regeneration using keratose was similar to an Infuse control. However, unlike Infuse's collagen carrier system, in vitro analysis showed that BMP-2 release correlated with keratose scaffold degradation. Surprisingly, treatment with keratose only led to deposition of more bone outgrowth than the untreated negative control at the 8-week time point. The application of keratose also demonstrated a notable reduction of adipose tissues within the gap. While not able to induce osteogenesis on its own, keratose may be the first biomaterial capable of suppressing adipose tissue formation, thereby indirectly enhancing bone regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Roche C de Guzman, Justin M Saul, Mary D Ellenburg, Michelle R Merrill, Heather B Coan, Thomas L Smith, Mark E Van Dyke. Bone regeneration with BMP-2 delivered from keratose scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2013 Feb;34(6):1644-56

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PMID: 23211447

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