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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has contributed to the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients; however, improved survival has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of kidney disease. Kidney disease may be partly responsible for higher morbidity in HIV-infected patients than in HIV-uninfected subjects. A total of 515 well-controlled HIV-infected men on HAART was enrolled in a 3-year prospective cohort study. The incidence of cancer and CVD was investigated over time. The impact of cystatin C elevation and albuminuria at baseline on the incidence of each disease was examined. Albuminuria was estimated by determining the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). The cumulative incidence of cancer and CVD was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, stratified by the presence and absence of elevated cystatin C and albuminuria biomarkers. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to calculate the hazards ratio (HR) and 95% incidence interval (CI) of each biomarker, adjusted for known risk factors. All participants completed the 3-year follow-up study. During the follow-up period, cancers and CVD developed in 13 (2.5%) and 14 (2.7%) participants, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were significantly increased for cancer incidence in patients with cystatin C elevation and for CVD in those with albuminuria. The HR (95% CI) of cystatin C elevation for occurrence of cancer was 6.09 (1.30 - 24.6) and the HR (95% CI) of ACR ≥ 20 mg/g for CVD was 8.97 (2.20 - 60.8). Cystatin C elevation and/or albuminuria at baseline in HIV-infected men undergoing HAART may be associated with poor prognosis.


Naoki Yanagisawa, Minoru Ando, Ken Tsuchiya, Kosaku Nitta. Impact of cystatin C elevation and albuminuria on probability of adverse outcomes in HIV-infected men receiving HAART. Clinical nephrology. 2013 May;79(5):362-9

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PMID: 23253904

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