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Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with many upper gastrointestinal diseases, is found in half of the population of the world. Several special stains and immunohistochemistry stain for H. pylori are available. The need for and usefulness of immunohistochemical (IHC) technique has been debated for years. Toluidine blue is a simple stain for microbiological studies and is easily available in laboratories. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Giemsa and toluidine blue staining with immunehistochemistry for detection of H. pylori in patients with gastritis and also to correlate the results of these staining methods with pathological grading. We reviewed 54 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens stained by H&E and Giemsa as well as by toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry stains for H. pylori. H. pylori was positively identified by IHC in 43 (79.63%) patients, while positive samples were found in 18 (33.33%), 24 (44.44%) and 33 (61.11%) patients using H&E, Giemsa and toluidine blue staining methods. Our results showed that classical histological staining methods are not sensitive enough to identify low numbers or coccoid forms of organism, while toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry play an important role in detection of H. pylori infection. Toluidine blue has been proved to be much more reliable than H&E and Giemsa in detection of H. pylori. In addition, in post treatment biopsies and in biopsies with unexplained chronic active gastritis without histological evidence of H. pylori should have immunohistochemistry done to detect possible low density or coccoid form of organisms.

Citation

Raziye Tajalli, Maliheh Nobakht, Hajar Mohammadi-Barzelighi, Shahram Agah, Abdolaziz Rastegar-Lari, Alireza Sadeghipour. The immunohistochemistry and toluidine blue roles for Helicobacter pylori detection in patients with gastritis. Iranian biomedical journal. 2013;17(1):36-41

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PMID: 23279833

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