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To assess the costs associated with sleep symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Patients reporting physician-diagnosed FM from the National Health and Wellness Survey were categorized into three groups based on the number of sleep symptoms reported: two or more sleep symptoms (n = 1353), one sleep symptom (n = 574) and no sleep symptoms (n = 269). Annual direct and indirect costs were compared among the groups controlling for relevant confounders. After adjusting for demographic and health characteristics, patients with FM with one, two or more sleep symptoms had higher annual physician costs (US$12,328 and US$12,261, respectively) and higher annual emergency room visit costs (US$846 and US$729, respectively) than patients with FM without any sleep symptoms (physician visit costs: US$9845; emergency room visit costs: US$527; all p < 0.05). Similarly, both patients with one (US$18,100) and two or more sleep symptoms (US$18,428) reported higher total indirect costs compared with those without any sleep symptoms (US$14,711; p < 0.05). Among the FM population, sleep symptoms were prevalent and associated with higher direct and indirect costs, suggesting improved management may have long-term cost savings.


Jan-Samuel Wagner, Arthi Chandran, Marco DiBonaventura, Joseph C Cappelleri. The costs associated with sleep symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia. Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research. 2013 Feb;13(1):131-9

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PMID: 23402453

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