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Physically transparent cornea, lens, and vitreous body are not transparent from histophysiological viewpoint and hence, cannot directly transmit light to the retina. The lens forms from two primordia in the course of the eye development: ectodermal (for capsular epithelium) and neuroglia (for lenticular stroma). These data suggest that the neuroglia migrating from the internal leaflet of the ocular goblet is a source of stromal fibroblasts of the corneal proper substance and also presents the fibroblast differons in the human ocular vitreous body and in the lenticular posterior pole. The common source in the development of the stroma of the transparent structures of the eye is explained and confirmed by the fact that the cornea, lens, vitreous body, and the retinal and brain neuroglia contain special proteins common for all these structures, crystallins. The structural relationship and origin of fibroblasts of the transparent ocular media underlie the identical functions of crystallin production; the physical and chemical characteristics of crystallins prevent the diffusion of light and cumulate it in one direction. In addition, our data on the neuroglial origin of the lenticular stroma suggest that the lenticular cells can act as Muller's glia, regulating the transformed energy flow. Hence, the fibers and stromal cells of the cornea, lens, vitreous body, and retinal glia can serve as components of the universal conduction system perceiving light, transforming it into another type of energy (presumably into electromagnetic waves or some motor pulse), and only then sending it to the photosensor cells. As a result, we have one-way light conduction due to stromal cells of transparent eye structures and inability of the retina to identify these cells. We therefore conclude that the cells located in front of the retina are invisible for the photoreceptors, because they conduct stimulation being not transparent in the physical sense, but just physiologically. We see only what this unique conduction system allows us to see.


G V Reva, I V Kovaleva, I V Reva, T Yamamoto, A S Novikov, A V Lomakin, E S Kulikova. Role of the neuroglia of human ocular transparent structures in the visual perception concepts. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine. 2013 Feb;154(4):515-20

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PMID: 23486595

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