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Symptomatic slow-flow vascular malformations include venous malformations and lymphatic malformations, as well as combined anomalies. Endovascular therapy, consisting mainly of intralesional sclerosant injection, is now accepted as the primary treatment for most of these lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography supplement physical examination for diagnosis and assessment of the extent of malformation. Endovascular treatment is usually carried out under general anesthesia. Sclerosants for venous malformations include ethanol, 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate, and bleomycin. Lymphatic malformations can be injected with doxycycline, bleomycin, OK-432, or other sclerosants. Complications of sclerotherapy include tissue necrosis, peripheral nerve injury, hemoglobinuria, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Although most vascular malformations are not cured, the majority of patients benefit from endovascular treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Patricia E Burrows. Endovascular treatment of slow-flow vascular malformations. Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology. 2013 Mar;16(1):12-21

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PMID: 23499128

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